Linus Pauling's brilliant invention (and now therapy named in his honor) increases the blood concentration of vitamin C and of lysine to neutralize the Lp(a).
"I recommend that every person who is at risk of heart disease should take 5 or 6 g of vitamin C and at least 2 g of lysine, although larger amounts may be necessary." - Linus Pauling
I'd say C is most important for general health. If you're worried about cost, lysine and proline can be had cheap in bulk. I take approximately 4920mg lysine and 1640mg proline daily, which by my calculations costs 16.8 cents per day. Mix them with the right foods (I'm partial to tomato soup) and they don't even taste bad.
Here is what we think we know based on the very first case Linus Pauling published and relates on the Unified Theory video.
Vitamin C (around 5000 mg) can keep a heart patient alive, but this amount by itself doesn't generally reverse heart disease (at least in 10 to 30 days!).
The requirement for vitamin C is based on our body's requirements to make its own collagen, and I agree with randian that it is the most important for fighting cardiovascular disease. In every case, it is essential to take vitamin C in the dosages Linus Pauling recommended. The Pauling/Rath theory is that our inability to make our own vitamin c, like other animals can, leads to weak arteries that tend to crack over time because of the mechanical forces of the heart beat. Lp(a) cholesterol has evolved, according to Pauling, as an alternative to strong arteries, as Lp(a) leads to the white "plaster casts" of atherosclerosis.
Second, is lysine - the only other recommendation that Pauling made that I am aware of. Lysine in theory can reverse Lp(a) plaques at high enough dosages. This was the moral of the first case. The National Science Medal winner who was taking 5 grams of vitamin c, but had difficulty walking across the room. Alive but not well. When Pauling suggested that he add 5 grams of lysine, the man improved to the point of chopping wood in 30 days.
In theory taking only high lysine (but not high vitamin C) would be unwise - as the plaques that are acting as surrogates for low vitamin C might dissolve.
Proline was recommended to augment lysine by Matthias Rath, MD. It is also known that the University of Chicago researchers found the proline binding site on Lp(a) that are analogous to the lysine binding sites. Both amino acids can work to destroy Lp(a) but I have concerns about patients with coronary bypass graphs taking proline because these vein graphs may rely on Lp(a) to keep them strong and clear. Proline seems to be that factor that can lower or eliminate Lp(a) in the blood.